Gohad Fort


Rana Singhandev II had founded Gohad fort but Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana, Maharaja Chhatra Singh and Maharaja Kirat Singh did the major construction works. The site of Gohad fort was selected strategically on the Vaisli River where it takes a circular turn. The river was dug and flow of river was extended up to the fort to take a semi circular shape. The fort has 7 gates named after the villages to which they face and the way they lead to. These are Itayli (in south), Barthara (in west), Gohadi (in northwest), Birkhari (in northeast), Kathwan (in east), Kharaua (in southeast) and Saraswati. The fort was protected with four lines of defence.

Gohad is a historic town situated in Bhind district of Madhya Pradesh. The district headquarters is in the town of Bhind, which is in the southwest of Gohad at a distance of 45 km. The geographical location of this place is between 26.43° North latitude and 78.44° East longitude at an average elevation of 159 metres (521 feet) abve mean sea level. Gohad was founded by a Jat family and was the monopoly of Malhar Rao Holkar in the mid 18th century. The town is easily accessible from others parts of the state as well as India. The closest railway station is at Bhind and the nearest airport is at Gwalior. The neighbouring towns of Gohad are Gwalior, Bhind, Agra, Jalaun, Etawah and Morena.

According to the 2001 India census report, Gohad a population of 45,194 inhabitants. Males and Gohad Fortfemales account for 55% and 45% of the population. In Gohad, 17% of the population is less than six years of age. The town has an average literacy rate of 57%, which is lower than the national average literacy rate of 59.5%. The male literacy rate is 68% and the female literacy rate is 44%.

The Jat rulers of Gohad constructed several other monuments including forts, palaces, temples, wells and gardens which are of archaeological and historical importance. These include the Gohad Fort, Itayali Darwaja, Chhatra Mahal, Shish Mahal, Satbhanwar, Laxman-tal, Rani-guru temple, Laxman temple and Modi-ki-Haveli to mention a few.

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The historically important rulers among the above were Bhim Singh (1707-1756) and Chhatar Singh (1757-1785). They occupied the Gwalior fort twice; Bhim Singh from 1740 to 1756 and Chhatra Singh from 1780 to 1783. During this period, they constructed several monuments within Gwalior fort, including the Cenotaph of Bhim Singh.Chhatri near Bhimtal in memory of Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana on the Gwalior Fort

After the death of Rana Chhatar Singh in 1785 entire Gohad area became a symbol of anarchy, plundering and killing for 18 years. The Jat rebels could be controlled neither by the Marathas nor by British troops. In 1789 Daulat Rao Scindia attempted to capture Gohad but could not do so. The revolutionary Jats unanimously declared Kirat Singh son of samant Tarachand of village Neerpur in 1803. Samant Tarachand was cousin brother of Rana Chhatar Singh. The coronation ceremony of Kirat Singh took place at ‘Bagathara fortress’, situated at a distance of 12 miles from Gohad, as Gohad and Gwalior were in possession of Sindhia.

In Second Anglo-Maratha War between Britishers and Marathas at Laswari on 1 November 1803, Lord Lake defeated Sindhia and vanished his reputation. In this war the Jats helped Britishers. The British army officers had affection for Jats.

Later the British concluded a treaty with Jats and with their help defeated Marathas and won back Gwalior and Gohad from them. The British kept Gwalior with them and handed over Gohad to Jats in 1804.

Gohad was handed over to Marathas under a revised treaty dated 22 November 1805 between Marathas and Britishers. Under this treaty Gohad ruler Rana Kirat Singh was given Dhaulpur, Badi and Rajakheda in exchange with Gohad. Rana Kirat Singh moved to Dhaulpur in December 1805.[10] Sindhias could take over Gohad on 27 February 1806 with the help of Britishers. Thus the Rana Jat rulers of Bamraulia gotra ruled Gohad for 300 years from 1505-1805.

According to Alexander Cunningham and William Cook, people of the Jat caste from village Bamrauli (near Agra) settled the town of Gohad in 1505. This later developed into an important Jat stronghold. The Jat rulers of Gohad were awarded the title of rana. The Rana Jat ruler Singhandev II founded Gohad fort and the Gohad state in 1505. Gohad state had 360 forts and fortresses all around for the protection of their people. Out of these Gohad fort is most important and unique example architecture of Jat rulers. It had the same style of architecture as used by the Jat rulers in Bharatpur Fort.

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The major attraction in the town is the Fort of Gohad, which was constructed by Rana Singhandev II. The fort is a major tourist destination. The Jat rulers of Gohad had constructed several other monuments, which are of archaeological and historical importance. These include the Itayali Darwaja, Chhatra Mahal, Shish Mahal, Satbhanwar, Laxman-tal, Rani-guru temple, Laxman temple and Modi- ki-Haveli.

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Behat is a village in Gwalior district at a distance of 50 km from Gwalior, in east direction, near the border of Bhind district. It was the summer capital of Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana who had also constructed a palace, called Chhatrapur, on the hill top at Behat village which was used as a summer capital. It is a marvelous site surrounded by deep forests.

Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana was a great warrior, protector of his public, great lover of art and culture. There is a deep and big Bawdi for regular supply of water in the palace. Diwann-e-Khas is constructed below the palace. The palace is a good example of the architectural skills of Rana rulers. The site is now a protected monument by Archaeological Survey of India.

Behat is believed to be the birth place of famous singer Tansen. Tan Sen(Ram Rattan 1520-1589), was born in Behat near Gwalior in a Brahmin family, but them ,converse to Islam when he knows the Saint Sufi and singer Mohammad Ghaus of Gwalior and go to live with him, he was his first Master.

Karwas is a village in Bhind district in Madhya Pradesh. It was the site of an important fort of Gohad Rana rulers. The ancestor of Bamraulis Jagdeo Singh had come from Agra and stayed at Bhind which was ruled by Aniruddh Singh Bhadauria. There was war between Bamraulias and Bhadauria rulers at place called Pach'hara in which Bhadauria was defeated. The Ranas kept their capital at Pach'hara for some time and later shifted the capital to Gohad. The brother of Gohad ruler Jagdeo Singh constructed a fort here in samvat 1680 (1623 AD).

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